Semiconductor and photovoltaic technologies such as LED and solar panels have become commonplace around the world in recent years. Manufacturers of such thin-film products must satisfy the strong demand for high-quality and low-cost components. Quality control during production is essential, and the U.S.-based engineering firm k-Space offers a number of real-time thin-film metrology tools. These tools provide manufacturers with important parameters such as deposition rate, film thickness and roughness, curvature, stress, and reflectivity. This data lets engineers monitor and modify production to ensure quality.